During the last decade much research and many initiatives have been undertaken to make progress in areas such as risk assessment (Murray, 2017, Simmons et al., 2017), disaster preparedness (Ghosh et al., 2018, Subramaniam and Villeneuve, 2019), capacity building (Few et al., 2017, Coppola, 2018), early warning systems (Guru and Santha, 2015, Marchezini et al., 2018), disaster response (Feng and Xiang-Yang, 2018, Smith et al., 2018), training and resilience frameworks (Kwok et al., 2018, Tiernan et al., 2019). Research reported in O’Brien et al. (2012) suggests that progress in disaster risk reduction (DRR) has been limited by the failure to acknowledge and address the development processes as the root causes of disasters. Previous research has concentrated on reducing existing risks, rather than on how risks are generated and accumulated in the first place through development projects (Thomalla et al., 2018) that are taking place as a part of the reconstruction phase after a disaster or in response to the demand of urban sprawl. Furthermore, the impact of climate change is posing serious challenges to sustainable urban development, with societies experiencing frequent extreme events such as floods, heatwaves and storms (IPCC, 2014). It is evident that the economic and non-economic impacts of disasters are on the increase, and the poorest nations are struggling to maintain their development trajectory (Ramalingam, 2013, UNISDR, 2015).
In Thomalla et al. (2018), the researchers argue that one of the explanations for increasing risks and impacts is that the development and disaster risk reduction decision-making processes occur in silos, conducted by different agencies, institutions and other actors with differing priorities, perspectives and time horizons. Furthermore, work on resilience has attracted criticism for its failure to address social vulnerability and to engage with issues of equity and power (Matin et al., 2018). Hence the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG goals) (such as SDG 10, 11, 17 which call for “reduced inequalities”, “inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable cities” and “partnerships for goals”) and the Sendai Priority 4 that calls for build-back better in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction, are hard to achieve due to a lack of research knowledge, current practices and policies. Therefore, there is an urgent need to transform current development practices that increase or create risks, as well as unfairly distributing risks to vulnerable communities, to a new form of development practice that is equitable and resilient. As proposed in Thomalla et al. (2018), such a transformation can be achieved through (i) exposing development-disaster risk trade-offs in development policy and decision-making; (ii) prioritizing equity and social justice in approaches to securing resilience, and (iii) enabling transformation through adaptive governance (governance that promotes cross-organisational collaboration, openness, adaptability, learning, impartiality, power sharing and public participation).
The TRANSCEND project aims to address the above challenges by conducting research to investigate processes, governance structures, policies and technology that can enable a transition towards a more risk-sensitive and transformative urban development approach.
References (Please Choose the ones crossed reference in the above paragraphs :
ANDERSEN, D. F., VENNIX, J. A., RICHARDSON, G. P. & ROUWETTE, E. A. 2007. Group model building: problem structing, policy simulation and decision support. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 691-694.
BASKERVILLE, R. 1999. Investigating Information Systems with Action Research. . Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 2.
BÉRARD, C. 2010. Group Model Building Using System Dynamics: An Analysis of Methodological Frameworks. The Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 8, 35 – 45).
BIROSCAK, B. J., BRYANT, C., KHALIQ, M., SCHNEIDER, T., PANZERA, A. D., COURTNEY, A., PARVANTA, C. & HOVMAND, P. 2019. Using system dynamics modeling to evaluate a community-based social marketing framework: A computer simulation study. Journal of Social Marketing, 9, 53-76.
CASTELNOVO, W. 2016. Co-production Makes Cities Smarter: Citizens’ Participation in Smart City Initiatives. In: FUGINI, M., BRACCI, E. & SICILIA, M. (eds.) Co-production in the Public Sector: Experiences and Challenges. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
COPPOLA, D. 2018. Strategic Approach to Capacity Development for Implementation of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction: A Vision of Risk-Informed Sustainable Development by 2030. Concise Guide. Geneva: UNISDR.
CRETNEY, R. M. 2016. Local responses to disaster: The value of community led post disaster response action in a resilience framework. Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, 25, 27-40.
CUTTER, S. 2018. Linkages between vulnerability and resilience. In: FUCHS, S. & THALER, T. (eds.) Vulnerability and Resilience to Natural Hazards. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
DJALANTE, R., HOLLEY, C. & THOMALLA, F. 2011. Adaptive governance and managing resilience to natural hazards. International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, 2, 1-14.
DUFTY, N. 2017. How can we improve community engagement for floodplain management?
FENG, Y. & XIANG-YANG, L. 2018. Improving emergency response to cascading disasters: Applying case-based reasoning towards urban critical infrastructure. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 30, 244-256.
FEW, R., SCOTT, Z., WOOSTER, K., AVILA, M. F., TARAZONA, M. & THOMSON, A. 2017. Strategic Research into National and Local Capacity Building for DRM: Synthesis Report Geneva: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.
FORESTER, J. 2012. Learning to Improve Practice: Lessons from Practice Stories and Practitioners’ Own Discourse Analyses (or Why Only the Loons Show Up). Planning Theory & Practice, 13, 11-26.
FOWLER, P. J., WRIGHT, K., MARCAL, K. E., BALLARD, E. & HOVMAND, P. S. 2019. Capability Traps Impeding Homeless Services: A Community-Based System Dynamics Evaluation. Journal of Social Service Research, 45, 348-359.
GHOSH, S., GHOSH, K., GANGULY, D., CHAKRABORTY, T., JONES, G. J. F., MOENS, M.-F. & IMRAN, M. 2018. Exploitation of Social Media for Emergency Relief and Preparedness: Recent Research and Trends. Information Systems Frontiers, 20, 901-907.
GURU, B. & SANTHA, S. D. 2015. People-centred early warning systems and disaster risk reduction: A Scoping Study of Public Participatory Geographical Information Systems (PPGIS) in India. GAR 2015 Input Paper. Geneva: UNISDR.
HEVNER, A. R., MARCH, S. T. & & PARK, J. 2004. Design Science in Information Systems Research. MIS Quarterly, 28, 75-15.
HOCH, C., ZELLNER, M., MILZ, D., RADINSKY, J. & LYONS, L. 2015. Seeing is not believing: cognitive bias and modelling in collaborative planning. Planning Theory & Practice, 16, 319-335.
HOVMAND, P. 2014. Community Based System Dynamics, Springer Link.
INNES, J. E. & BOOHER, D. E. 2004. Reframing public participation: strategies for the 21st century. Planning Theory & Practice, 5, 419-436.
IPCC 2014. Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Field, C.B., V.R. Barros, D.J. Dokken, K.J. Mach, M.D. Mastrandrea, T.E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K.L. Ebi, Y.O. Estrada, R.C. Genova, B. Girma, E.S. Kissel, A.N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P.R. Mastrandrea, and L.L. White (eds.)], Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, Cambridge University Press.
JORDAN, R., CRALL, A., HMELO-SILVER, C. E., GRAY, S. A., NEWMAN, G. & SORENSEN, A. 2018a. Developing Model-Building as a Scientific Practice in Collaborative Citizen Science. Natural Sciences Education, 47.
JORDAN, R., GRAY, S., ZELLNER, M., GLYNN, P. D., VOINOV, A., HEDELIN, B., STERLING, E. J., LEONG, K., OLABISI, L. S., HUBACEK, K., BOMMEL, P., BENDOR, T. K., JETTER, A. J., LAURSEN, B., SINGER, A., GIABBANELLI, P. J., KOLAGANI, N., CARRERA, L. B., JENNI, K., PRELL, C. & GROUP, N. S.-E. S. C. P. M. P. W. 2018b. Twelve Questions for the Participatory Modeling Community. Earth’s Future, 6, 1046-1057.
KIRSHEN, P., BALLESTERO, T., DOUGLAS, E., HESED, C. D. M., RUTH, M., PAOLISSO, M., WATSON, C., GIFFEE, P., VERMEER, K. & BOSMA, K. 2018. Engaging Vulnerable Populations in Multi-Level Stakeholder Collaborative Urban Adaptation Planning for Extreme Events and Climate Risks — A Case Study of East Boston USA. Journal of Extreme Events, 05, 1850013.
KOLBE, T. H., GRÖGER, G. & PLÜMER, L. 2005. CityGML: Interoperable Access to 3D City Models. In: VAN OOSTEROM, P., ZLATANOVA, S. & FENDEL, E. M. (eds.) Geo-information for Disaster Management. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
KWOK, A. H., PATON, D., BECKER, J., HUDSON-DOYLE, E. E. & JOHNSTON, D. 2018. A bottom-up approach to developing a neighbourhood-based resilience measurement framework. Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, 27, 255-270.
MARCHEZINI, V., HORITA, F. E. A., MATSUO, P. M., TRAJBER, R., TREJO-RANGEL, M. A. & OLIVATO, D. 2018. A Review of Studies on Participatory Early Warning Systems (P-EWS): Pathways to Support Citizen Science Initiatives. Frontiers in Earth Science, 6.
MARINCIONI, F. 2007. Information technologies and the sharing of disaster knowledge: the critical role of professional culture. Disasters, 31, 459-476.
MATIN, N., FORRESTER, J. & ENSOR, J. 2018. What is equitable resilience? World Development, 109, 197-205.
MILLER, D., C. & PAOLISSO, M. 2015. Cultural knowledge and local vulnerability in African American communities. Nature Climate Change, 5, 683.
MORSS, R., WILHELMI, O., W. DOWNTON, M. & GRUNTFEST, E. 2005. Flood Risk, Uncertainty, and Scientific Information for Decision Making: Lessons from an Interdisciplinary Project.
MUNENE, M. B., SWARTLING, Å. G. & THOMALLA, F. 2018. Adaptive governance as a catalyst for transforming the relationship between development and disaster risk through the Sendai Framework? International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 28, 653-663.
MURRAY, N. 2017. Urban Disaster Risk Governance: a systematic review. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, UCL Institute of Education, University College London.
NIITAMO, V., KULKKI, S., ERIKSSON, M. & HRIBERNIK, K. A. State-of-the-art and good practice in the field of living labs. 2006 IEEE International Technology Management Conference (ICE), 26-28 June 2006 2006. 1-8.
O’BRIEN, A PATWARDHAN, M PELLING, S HALLEGATTE, A MASKREY, T OKI, U OSWALD-SPRING, T WILBANKS, PZ YANDA, F BERKHOUT, R BIGGS, HG BRAUCH, K BROWN, C FOLKE, L HARRINGTON, H KUNREUTHER, C LACAMBRA, R LEICHENKO, R MECHLER, C PAHL-WOSTL, V PRZYLUSKI, D SATTERTHWAITE, F SPERLING, L SYGNA, T TANNER, P TSCHAKERT, K ULSRUD & VIGUIÉ, V. 2012. Toward a Sustainable and Resilient Future. .Chapter 8. Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation (SREX). Group II Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
PELLING, M. 2012. Resilience and transformation In: PELLING, M., MANUEL-NAVARRETE, D. & REDCLIFT, M. (eds.) Climate Change and the Crisis of Capitalism. London: Routledge. London: Routledge.
POWELL, J. H., HAMMOND, M., CHEN, A. & MUSTAFEE, N. 2018. Human Agency in Disaster Planning: A Systems Approach. Risk Analysis, 38, 1422-1443.
RADINSKY, J., MILZ, D., ZELLNER, M., PUDLOCK, K., WITEK, C., HOCH, C. & LYONS, L. 2017. How planners and stakeholders learn with visualization tools: using learning sciences methods to examine planning processes. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 60, 1296-1323.
RAMALINGAM, B. 2013. Aid on the edge of chaos: rethinking international cooperation in a complex world, Oxford University Press.
RICH, K. M., RICH, M. & DIZYEE, K. 2018. Participatory systems approaches for urban and peri-urban agriculture planning: The role of system dynamics and spatial group model building. Agricultural Systems, 160, 110-123.
RICHARD, E. & DAVID, L. F. 2018. The future of citizen engagement in cities—The council of citizen engagement in sustainable urban strategies (ConCensus). Futures, 101, 80-91.
SCHAFFERS, H., GARCÍA GUZMÁN, J. & MERZ, C. 2019. An Action Research Approach to Rural Living Labs Innovation.
SCOLOBIG, A., PRIOR, T., SCHRÖTER, D., JÖRIN, J. & PATT, A. 2015. Towards people-centred approaches for effective disaster risk management: Balancing rhetoric with reality. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 12, 202-212.
SIMMONS, D. C., CORBANE, C., MENONI, S., SCHNEIDERBAUER, S. & ZSCHAU, J. 2017. Understanding disaster risk: risk assessment methodologies and examples In: POLJANŠEK, K., MARÍN FERRER, M., DE GROEVE, T. & CLARK, I. (eds.) Science for disaster risk management 2017: knowing better and losing less Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
SIMONOVIC, S. P. 2015. Systems Approach to Management of Disasters – A Missed Opportunity? Journal of Integrated Disaster Risk Management, 5(2).
SMITH, W. R., ROBERTSON, B. W., MURTHY, D., STEPHENS, K. K. & LI, J. Social Media in Citizen-Led Disaster Response: Rescuer Roles, Coordination Challenges, and Untapped Potential. In: BOERSMA, K. & TOMASZEWSKI, B., eds. 15th ISCRAM Conference, May 2018 2018 Rochester, NY, USA Rochester Institute of Technology.
STROH, D. P. 2015. Systems Thinking For Social Change: A Practical Guide to Solving Complex Problems, Avoiding Unintended Consequences, and Achieving Lasting Results, Chelsea Green Publishing.
SUBRAMANIAM, P. & VILLENEUVE, M. 2019. Advancing emergency preparedness for people with disabilities and chronic health conditions in the community: a scoping review. Disability and Rehabilitation, 1-9.
THOMALLA, F., BOYLAND, M., JOHNSON, K., ENSOR, J., TUHKANEN, H., GERGER SWARTLING, Å., HAN, G., FORRESTER, J. & WAHL, D. 2018. Transforming Development and Disaster Risk. Sustainability, 10, 1458.
TIERNAN, A., DRENNAN, L., NALAU, J., ONYANGO, E., MORRISSEY, L. & MACKEY, B. 2019. A review of themes in disaster resilience literature and international practice since 2012. Policy Design and Practice, 2, 53-74.
TOGAF 2018. The TOGAF ® Standard, Version 9.2, Van Haren Publishing.
TRANI, J.-F., BAKHSHI, P., MOZAFFARI, A., SOHAIL, M., RAWAB, H., KAPLAN, I., BALLARD, E. & HOVMAND, P. 2019. Strengthening child inclusion in the classroom in rural schools of Pakistan and Afghanistan: What did we learn by testing the system dynamics protocol for community engagement? Research in Comparative and International Education, 14, 158-181.
TRANI, J.-F., BALLARD, E., BAKHSHI, P. & HOVMAND, P. 2016. Community based system dynamic as an approach for understanding and acting on messy problems: a case study for global mental health intervention in Afghanistan. Conflict and Health, 10, 25.
ULBRICH, P., PORTO DE ALBUQUERQUE, J. & COAFFEE, J. 2018. The Impact of Urban Inequalities on Monitoring Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals: Methodological Considerations. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 8, 6.
UNISDR 2015. Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction, Geneva, United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction.
VAN WESTEN, C. J. 2013. Remote Sensing and GIS for Natural Hazards Assessment and Disaster Risk Management. In: BISHOP, M. (ed.) Remote Sensing and GIScience in Geomorphology. Elsevier.
VENNIX, J. A. M. 1996. Group model building: facilitating team learning using system dynamics, Chichester, John Wiley & Sons.
ZAVESTOSKI, S. & SWARNAKAR, P. 2017. Neither ‘Top-down’ nor ‘Bottom-up’: A ‘Middle-out’ Alternative to Sustainable Development.
ZLATANOVA, S., RAHMAN, A. A. & PILOUK, M. 3D GIS: current status and perspectives. Joint Conference on Geo-spatial theory, Processing and Applications, , 8-12 July 2002 Ottawa, Canada.